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Estimating obstructive sleep apnea in cyprus

Man sleeping in cyprus

A study was recently published observing the results of trying to estimate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in Cyprus using a randomised, stratified epidemiological study utilising a stop-bang sleep apnea questionnaire.

Abstract

Introduction

Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that Obstructive
Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disorder in the general
population and increases over time all over the world. The high
prevalence is in part due to increasing rates of obesity. However,
estimates of OSA prevalence in Southern Europe are generally lacking.

Aim

The aim of our study was to predict the risk of OSA in the general
population of Cyprus, the southeast part of Europe, by using a dedicated questionnaire like STOP-Bang.

Subjects and Method:

We screened 5736 sample housing units for eligible adults and a total population of 4118 eligible responders completed the STOP-Bang
questionnaire. Participants were all adults, age 18+ residing in Cyprus.
The sample was stratified according to the last demographic report
(2016) by district, rural or urban area, gender and age and the estimated
sample size needed was 2000. Our survey was conducted by Computer
Aided Telephone Interviewing (CATI) method. The question about Neck
Circumference was removed from the final evaluation due to the
uncertainty of most of the participants and the risk of bias.

Results

From a total of 4118 participants (2252 males – 54.7%, 1862 females – 45.3%), with 46.6% over 50 years old, 2641 (64.1%) were at low risk for OSA (0-2 positive answers), 1200 (29.1%) at intermediate risk (3-4 positive
answers) and 277 (6.7%) at high risk (≥5 positive answers). In sum, 29.9%
responded positively for snoring, 39.3% for feeling tired or sleepy during the day, 12.3% for observed apnea during sleep, and 24.6% for having or being treated for hypertension. Class II and III obesity with Body Mass Index (BMI) >35kgr/m2 was observed in 192 subjects (4.7%). In the subpopulation of obese participants (BMI>30Kg/m2), intermediate to high risk
of OSA was present in 45%, whereas in obesity class II and III the percentage reached almost 90%.

Conclusions

Our survey yielded that the prevalence of intermediate to high risk for OSA was 50% in males and 18% in females, in the general population of
Cyprus. These findings were similar to previously reported high OSA
prevalence worldwide, considering the fact that a single questionnaire is only a screening tool and cannot alone diagnose sleep apnea.

Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019 view the article HERE
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Source: Sleep Medicine Author(s): Frangiskos Frangopoulos, Ivi Nicolaou, Savvas Zannetos,
Nicholas-Tiberio Economou, Tonia Adamide, Andreas Georgiou, Georgia
Trakada